Summary[ edit ] Mill took many elements of his version of utilitarianism from Jeremy Benthamthe great nineteenth-century legal reformer, who along with William Paley were the two most influential English utilitarians prior to Mill. Like Bentham, Mill believed that happiness or pleasure, which both Bentham and Mill equated with happiness was the only thing humans do and should desire for its own sake. Since happiness is the only intrinsic good, and since more happiness is preferable to less, the goal of the ethical life is to maximize happiness. This is what Bentham and Mill call "the principle of utility" or "the greatest-happiness principle.
It characterized itself mainly as a philosophical-medical school, blending PythagoreanPlatonicCynicand Stoic elements together. You stir man to take pleasure in praising you, because you have made us for yourself, and our heart is restless until it rests in you.
This is joy grounded in you, O God, who are the truth. Augustine of Hippo — AD was an early Christian theologian and philosopher  whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy. Augustine, all human actions revolve around loveand the primary problem humans face is the misplacing of love.
Since humanity was brought forth from Godbut has since fallenone's soul dimly remembers the happiness from when one was with God. Augustine follows the Neoplatonic tradition in asserting that happiness lays in the contemplation of the purely intelligible realm.
Augustine deals with the concept of happiness directly in his treatises De beata vita and Contra Academicos. This they work at by toiling over a whole range of pursuits, advancing on different paths, but striving to attain the one goal of happiness.
The work has been described as having had the single most important influence on the Christianity of the Middle Ages and early Renaissance and as the last great work of the Classical Period. He posits that happiness is acquired by attaining the perfect good, and that perfect good is God.
Only by exercising the human faculty of reason - a God-given ability - can one transform the soul from worldliness to complete devotion to God, the ultimate happiness. Thomas AquinasSumma Theologica  St.
According to Aristotle, human virtue means virtue of the soul and not the body, just like human happiness means happiness of the soul. Virtue of humans also will be the state of character which makes them good and which makes them do their own work well. The achievement of happiness, the quest for happiness, the search for happiness. Some say that happiness is simply the absence of suffering. Others claim that it cannot be measured on its own, but rather must be scaled against other more measurable values, such as money, work success and stress levels. The philosophy of happiness is the philosophical concern with the existence, nature, and attainment of happiness. Philosophers believe, happiness can be understood as the moral goal of life or as an aspect of chance; indeed, in most European languages the term happiness is synonymous with luck. Thus, philosophers usually explicate on happiness as either a state of mind, or a life that goes well for the .
Thomas Aquinas — AD was a philosopher and theologianwho became a Doctor of the Church in Influenced by Aristotelianism and Christianityalongside the conviction of the separation of public and private spheres of life, Montaigne writes that happiness is a subjective state of mind and that satisfaction differs from person to person.Happiness, as the ethical end, does not simply consist in moral virtue, however, but includes intellectual virtue as well, and complete happiness is a contemplative as well as a practical activity.
Yet, Aristotle does not exclude all of the common-sense notions of happiness. The philosophy of happiness is the philosophical concern with the existence, nature, and attainment of happiness. Philosophers believe, happiness can be understood as the moral goal of life or as an aspect of chance; indeed, in most European languages the term happiness is synonymous with luck.
Thus, philosophers usually explicate on happiness as either a state of mind, or a life that goes well for the . According to Aristotle, happiness consists in achieving, through the course of a whole lifetime, all the goods — health, wealth, knowledge, friends, etc.
— that lead to the perfection of human nature and to the enrichment of human life. By happiness is intended pleasure, and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain, and the privation of pleasure."  Mill then spends the bulk of Chapter 2 responding to a . The trench that separates us from the happiness of other people The absence of Mitfreude, and a joker, admiration "There is something strangely boring about the happiness of other people," lamented the London writer and cultural critic Aldous Huxley.
On the other hand, Epicurus’ theory seems more rational, concrete and applicable to human life in some ideas like pleasure is the absence of pain and if we satisfy our natural and necessary desires, we can reach happiness.