The earlier of these two main sources is a tragedy known as The Persians, the premiere of which was performed in the year BCE at the festival of the City Dionysia in the city of Athens. This tragedy was composed and directed by the Athenian state poet Aeschylus and sponsored by the most celebrated exponent of Athenian democracy at that time, Pericles himself. The second and later source is the History of Herodotus, which first circulated in the Greek- speaking world during the last decades of the fifth century BCE. Most of our information about Xerxes comes from Herodotus.
Sumer, Babylon, and Hittites The twelfth to the ninth centuries BC in Mesopotamia are considered a dark age because very little is Persian empire notes about that time period.
From the thirteenth century BC to the middle of the sixth century is called the iron age with increasing use of that new technology.
A powerful Elamite kingdom led by Shutruk-nahhunte and his son Kutir-nahhunte conquered Persian empire notes hundred settlements and captured Babylon, ending the Kassite dynasty and taking away the statue of Marduk in BC.
Kutir-nahhunte died about BC and was succeeded as king of Elam by his brother Shilkhak-Inshushinak, who used Babylonian tribute to build up their capital of Susa.
Shilkhak launched military campaigns against Aramaean settlements to the west and north along the Tigris River. The year reign of Ashur-dan was ending with a struggle for power in Assyria.
A new Babylonian dynasty emerged in Isin; Nebuchadrezzar I r. However, his attacks against Assyria were successfully resisted.
Both the Babylonians and the Assyrians fought against the Lullubi tribes in the eastern hills and the nomadic tribes in the western deserts.
Assyrian King Tiglath-pileser I r. Tiglath-pileser also led his troops to the west as far as Lebanon. However, these victories were not followed up with effective imperialistic administration as the Aramaeans were able to fight back later.
Tiglath-pileser entertained himself hunting big game and claimed he killed lions. He organized water projects and collected literature in the world's oldest extant library. Tiglath-pileser did attack Babylon and plunder it, but he withdrew. For the next two centuries Assyria and Babylon co-existed.
In the eleventh century BC Nebuchadrezzar I was celebrated in an epic poem; Sinleqeunnimi of Uruk produced a humanized version of the Epic of Gilgamesh ; and another poet expressed the workings of divine justice, an important concept in Babylonian religion. Tiglath-pileser's son Ashur-bel-kala r.
Assyrian laws were stricter and their treatment of women worse than among the Babylonians, Hittitesand Israelites. In Assyria women could be divorced for no reason without being given any money, could be killed or maimed for adultery, and had to wear a veil outside the house, except for prostitutes who were forbidden to wear a veil.
In his reign BC Adad-nirari II fought numerous military campaigns of expansion and made a treaty with Babylon that lasted eighty years.
His son Tukulti-Ninurta II began reporting hostile attacks as justification for his campaigns and rebuilt the walls of Ashur. Continued expansion by his son Ashurnasirpal II r. Ashurnasirpal rebuilt Kalakh and made it his capital; 69, guests attended the opening ceremonies at his new palace.
Ashurnasirpal's son Shalmaneser III r. In Babylon Marduk-zakir-shumi called upon Shalmaneser and the Assyrians to help him establish his kingship against a challenge by his younger brother, who was defeated by Shalmaneser's army in BC.
Shalmaneser went on to defeat and take tribute from the Chaldeans and plunder the land of Namri. The next year Shalmaneser led an army ofagainst Arzashkun, the capital city of Urartu's King Aram r.
Aram was overthrown by Sarduri I, whose dynasty in Urartu lasted a quarter of a millennium. Urartu kings Menua r. At the end of his reign the crown prince rebelled against Shalmaneser; the dying King turned to his younger son who became Shamsi-Adad V, won the civil war with Babylon's help, and reigned for a dozen years, ungratefully attacking Babylon and the Chaldeans.
After Adad-nirari III died in BC, his four sons ruled in succession; but none of them were noteworthy until the fourth, Tiglath-pileser III, became king of Assyria in BC, though some believe that he was not a royal son but a general who took power by force.
Massive deportations were used to break up regional loyalties. In BC 65, Iranians were displaced, and laterwere moved; 30, Syrians were sent to the Zagros mountains while 18, Aramaeans from the Tigris area went to northern Syria.
Such policies increased the hatred of Assyria, and thus rebellions would continue in the years ahead anyway.
When a Chaldean gained the throne of Babylon, Tiglath-pileser removed him and in BC made himself king of Babylon; but he died the next year.
Tiglath-pileser's son Shalmaneser V was king of Assyria barely long enough to besiege Samaria for three years. The deportation of 27, Israelites was supervised by his successor Sargon II r. Sargon may have had to struggle to get the throne because he thanked the citizens of Ashur for helping him by exempting Ashur and Harran from the taxes imposed by Tiglath-pileser, and he punished "6, criminals" of Ashur by sending them to Harran.
Assyria's growing empire had interfered with the trade routes and made enemies of Urartu in the north and Egypt, which supported numerous rebellions in the years ahead. Assyria's first attack on Babylon was defeated by Elam.The rise and fall of the Persian Empires.
The Achaemenid Empire. Medes and Persians migrated from central Asia to Persia before B.C.E. Indo-European speakers, sharing cultural traits with Aryans. Persian Fire: The First World Empire and the Battle for the West [Tom Holland] on regardbouddhiste.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
In the fifth century B.C., a global superpower was determined to bring truth and order to what it regarded as two terrorist states. The superpower was Persia. These notes cover the Persian Empire, including Persepolis, Design and Ornamentation and the destruction of Persepolis.
Furthermore, it contains the Late Republic of Rome, including Entertainment, The Forum and Features. Note: Ancient Persia is generally agreed to have ended with the collapse of the Achaemenid dynasty as a result of the Wars of Alexander the Great. Macedonian Empire (– BCE) [ edit ] The Macedonian Empire at its greatest extent.
Around B.C.E. the Persian people—who were previously practically unknown in the annals of history—emerged from their base in southern Iran (Fars) and engaged in a monumental adventure that, under the leadership of Cyrus the Great and his successors, culminated in the creation of an immense Empire that stretched from central Asia to Upper Egypt, from the Indus to the Danube.
Produced in Peterborough, this replicates quality arak found in other parts of the world. Aromatic with notes of white flower, raisin, black licorice and fresh herb; on the palate it is medium bodied and semi-sweet, with flavours of raisin, anise and herb.
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