An essay has been defined in a variety of ways.
Approaches[ edit ] One can sub-divide approaches to the origin of language according to some underlying assumptions: Some theories see language mostly as an innate faculty—largely genetically encoded.
Other theories regard language as a mainly cultural system—learned through social interaction. Noam Chomskya prominent proponent of discontinuity theory, argues that a single chance mutation occurred in one individual in the order ofyears ago, installing the language faculty a component of the mid-brain in "perfect" or "near-perfect" form.
Among those who see language as mostly innate, some—notably Steven Pinker  —avoid speculating about specific precursors in nonhuman primates, stressing simply that the language faculty must have evolved in the usual gradual way.
Those who see language as a socially learned tool of communication, such as Michael Tomasellosee it developing from the cognitively controlled aspects of primate communication, these being mostly gestural as opposed to vocal. A very specific social structure—one capable of upholding unusually high levels of public accountability and trust—must have evolved before or concurrently with language to make reliance on "cheap signals" words an evolutionarily stable strategy.
Because the emergence of language lies so far back in human prehistorythe relevant developments have left no direct historical traces; neither can comparable processes be observed today. Despite this, the emergence of new sign languages in modern times— Nicaraguan Sign Languagefor example—may potentially offer insights into the developmental stages and creative processes necessarily involved.
Few dispute that Australopithecus probably lacked vocal communication significantly more sophisticated than that of great apes in general,  but scholarly opinions vary as to the developments since the appearance of Homo some 2.
Some scholars assume the development of primitive language-like systems proto-language as early as Homo habiliswhile others place the development of symbolic communication only with Homo erectus 1. Using statistical methods to estimate the time required to achieve the current spread and diversity in modern languages, Johanna Nichols —a linguist at the University of California, Berkeley —argued in that vocal languages must have begun diversifying in our species at leastyears ago.
Atkinson  suggests that successive population bottlenecks occurred as our African ancestors migrated to other areas, leading to a decrease in genetic and phenotypic diversity.
Atkinson argues that these bottlenecks also affected culture and language, suggesting that the further away a particular language is from Africa, the fewer phonemes it contains. By way of evidence, Atkinson claims that today's African languages tend to have relatively large numbers of phonemes, whereas languages from areas in Oceania the last place to which humans migratedhave relatively few.
Relying heavily on Atkinson's work, a subsequent study has explored the rate at which phonemes develop naturally, comparing this rate to some of Africa's oldest languages. The results suggest that language first evolved around 50,—, years ago, which is around the time when modern Homo sapiens evolved.
The pooh-pooh theory saw the first words as emotional interjections and exclamations triggered by pain, pleasure, surprise, etc. The yo-he-ho theory claims language emerged from collective rhythmic labor, the attempt to synchronize muscular effort resulting in sounds such as heave alternating with sounds such as ho.
Problems of reliability and deception[ edit ] Further information: Signalling theory From the perspective of signalling theory, the main obstacle to the evolution of language-like communication in nature is not a mechanistic one.
Rather, it is the fact that symbols—arbitrary associations of sounds or other perceptible forms with corresponding meanings—are unreliable and may well be false.
Animal vocal signals are, for the most part, intrinsically reliable. When a cat purrs, the signal constitutes direct evidence of the animal's contented state.
We trust the signal, not because the cat is inclined to be honest, but because it just cannot fake that sound. Primate vocal calls may be slightly more manipulable, but they remain reliable for the same reason—because they are hard to fake.Try Our Friends At: The Essay Store.
Free English School Essays. We have lots of essays in our essay database, so please check back here frequently to see the newest additions. Course materials, exam information, and professional development opportunities for AP teachers and coordinators. History of English This page is a short history of the origins and development of the English language The history of the English language really started with the arrival of three Germanic tribes who invaded Britain during the 5th century AD.
Lone Star College System Research Forest Drive, The Woodlands, TX - MAPS | HELP | JOBS | ACHIEVING THE DREAM | EMPLOYEE INTRANET. This free English Literature essay on ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ARABIC NOVEL is perfect for English Literature students to use as an example.
Origin And Development Of ‘The English Essay’ Dr P Sreenivasulu Reddy, Asst. Professor, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. V Parimala Venu, Associate Professor of English, GITAM University Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.