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Abstract Dysfunctional social behavior has been implicated in the experience of depression.
People with greater depressive symptoms report more frequent negative social interactions and react more strongly to them.
It remains unknown, however, whether reaction strength differs depending on whether social interactions are positive or negative.
Drawing on socio-evolutionary models of depression N. Badcock,we proposed that people with greater depressive symptoms should not only react more strongly to negative social interactions but also to positive social interactions and a sense of belonging.
In Study 1, the number of positive and negative social events showed a stronger relation to well-being among people with greater depressive symptoms. Study 2 extended this finding to perceptions of belonging in memorable social interactions, finding a stronger link between belonging and well-being among people with greater depressive symptoms.
Together these studies provide the first indication that depressive symptoms may sensitize people to everyday experiences of both social rejection and social acceptance. Cheever, Humans have a profound need to connect with others and gain acceptance into social groups i.
People form bonds readily and organize much of their behavior around establishing and maintaining those bonds. Further, people suffer when relationships deteriorate and social bonds are severed. The present research used two daily process studies to test the degree to which naturally occurring positive and negative social interactions interact with depressive symptoms to predict well-being.
Depression and Social Dysfunction The motivational and affective profile associated with depression can be expected to influence the ability to feel a sense of social belonging and how, in turn, these feelings influence well-being.
When people experience positive social interactions they should be more likely to feel a sense of belonging. For example, in laboratory studies, clinically depressed people show preferential attention to sad faces, adjectives, and emotion words e. It appears that depressed people should be more likely to pay attention to negative social interactions, and less likely to feel a sense of belonging.
Evidence does, indeed, suggest that depressed people often fail in their quest to satisfy their need for belonging in relationships e.
At least one study has found attenuation of immune-inflammatory responses in those who regularly attend religious activities that could not be explained by differences in depression, negative life events, or other covariates (Koenig et al., ). Historical Understandings Of Depression Continued Rashmi Nemade, Ph.D., Natalie Staats Reiss, Ph.D., and Mark Dombeck, Ph.D. A variety of complex explanations for depression came into being during the latter part of the Age of Enlightenment. While each individual does have to have clarity about what sex means to them, if and where porn fits into their sex life, and what's functional it's helpful if .
A synthesis of the existing literature leads us to conclude that people with greater depressive symptoms are more likely to create difficult social situations, have worse interactions, and preferentially direct their attention to negative emotional social stimuli.
As a result of this cascade of social dysfunction, it seems possible that more depressed people are sensitized to negative social interactions. A number of studies have examined sensitivity to rewards and punishments among clinically depressed samples.
Generally, laboratory studies show that clinically depressed people experience dulled, not heightened, reactions to negative, punishment cues and positive, reward cues e.
This dulled reactivity has also been extended to social stimuli e. Nonetheless, there are some indications that clinically depressed people show greater reactivity to positive reward cues Must et al. However, social experience is best understood as a dynamic, communication-driven process with progressive reciprocal influences of actors, partners, and situational demands e.
Cross-sectional survey methods miss this dynamic interchange, asking research participants to retrospectively evaluate and generalize across varying experiences in different social contexts.
Laboratory studies often employ singular, sometimes arbitrary, de-contextualized stimuli e. For example, it is not clear that images of an angry person would hold the same implications for social acceptance and rejection as a real-world disagreement with a friend. This method confers ecological validity that is often sacrificed with other approaches and can shed light on how people with depressive symptoms react to life events.
For example, this type of research has shown that people with greater depressive symptoms reported less intimacy, enjoyment, and perceived influence in everyday social interactions e. Whereas prior laboratory studies indicated dampened reactivity to positive, reward cues among more depressed people e.
There is another reason why Nezlek and Gable may have found greater reactivity to life events in contrast to laboratory studies.
Lab-based studies have focused on people with clinical levels of depression, often carrying the diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder, whereas Nezlek and Gable modeled depressive symptoms on a continuum.
Clinical levels of depression may represent a significantly more debilitating condition e.
On the other hand, evidence is emerging that depressive symptoms lie on a continuum of increasing impairment e. Subthreshold depression may be a pre-morbid manifestation of psychopathology, and, in fact, people with subthreshold depression are at substantial risk of developing major depressive disorder e.
Understanding how social experiences influence the well-being of people with subthreshold depression may shed light on the progression to disorder. One study has examined the reactivity of clinically depressed people to life events in their naturalistic environments.New York Post.
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Risk is the possibility of losing something of value. Values (such as physical health, social status, emotional well-being, or financial wealth) can be gained or lost when taking risk resulting from a given action or inaction, foreseen or unforeseen (planned or not planned).Risk can also be defined as the intentional interaction with uncertainty.
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