Educational Leadership and School Counseling Abstract With the rise in the number of high schools students admitting to academic dishonesty on national surveys, educators must examine what is happening in the classroom to determine a cause for this increase. Past research has shown that students cheat for a variety of reasons.
This view dominated public and political discourse in the immediate post-World War II decades. After the s public support for this assumption declined but remained strong.
Among scholars, however, Soviet espionage and American communism were distinctly separate activities and linkage between the two was seen as weak or nonexistent. As a consequence, there was little overlap between the historiography of the two fields of study.
This paper will review these separate historiographic traditions and how in the late s the two partially merged and appear likely to remain linked for the foreseeable future.
Dissertations academic dishonesty Historiography of Soviet Espionage in the United States Given the intense public and governmental concern about Soviet espionage in the early Cold War it is not surprising that a vast literature on the subject has accumulated.
What is surprising, however, it that very little Dissertations academic dishonesty it has been written by historians, political scientist, or others trained in professional scholarship.
Journalists, popular writers, and polemical advocates produced most of the books and essays on Soviet espionage in America, along with a considerable body of memoir and autobiographical writings by people involved in espionage or internal security.
A few example are: A Generation on Trial: Prior to the s there were, in fact, few scholarly books on the history of Soviet espionage. Many academics no doubt shied away from the issue because of the scarcity of primary sources and sensationalistic aspects of the topic.
He subjected the testimony of leading defectors from Soviet espionage and the Communist Party to a skeptical examination that assumed their testimony was suspect unless unimpeachable documentary corroboration was readily available. The extravagance of her claims about her espionage contacts, the vagueness of her testimony about the content of the secret material that she allegedly received, the absence of corroboration for most of her story, and above all, her evasiveness as a witness, all combine to raise serious doubts about her reliability.
One does not write a history of what one believes to have been largely mythical. Caute, Theoharis, and others, consequently, wrote not about Soviet espionage but about McCarthyism and what they regarded as manufactured anti-Communist panic about a non-existent link between the American Communist party and Soviet espionage, with the latter treated as insignificant in extent or importance.
Both books withstood angry assaults: Notably, however, no scholars produced a comprehensive response to either book. No historian went over the huge body of evidence that Weinstein, Radosh, and Milton reviewed and wrote a scholarly book setting out the case for the innocence of Alger Hiss or Julius Rosenberg.
Even though a logical conclusion was that Soviet espionage might have been more serious than the prevailing consensus, its full scope remained shrouded. And, despite the lack of competing comprehensive scholarly books taking a contrary stance, a still-significant number of historians continued to insist that Julius Rosenberg and Alger Hiss were innocent.
Nor did the two books stimulate other professional historians to a greater interest in studying the history of Soviet espionage. Despite her central role in persuading the American public that Soviet spies had thoroughly penetrated the government, there was no scholarly biography of Bentley.
Nor did scholars produce an in depth study of the defector Louis Budenz, the convicted spies Jack Soble and Judith Coplon, the complex Amerasia affair, or the Gouzenko case in Canada with its American implications.
Prior to the s and the collapse of Soviet communism, writing about the history of Soviet espionage in America in the Stalin era remained largely the province of journalists, popular writers, and memoirists. The prevailing academic consensus at the end of the s, while shaken by Perjury and The Rosenberg File, remained committed to a minimalist view of Soviet espionage and saw little involvement by the CPUSA.
The entirely separate historiography of the American Communist movement sustained and supported this belief. It was a thorough survey based on a close reading of the radical press as well as the leaflets, statements, and proclamations put out by the various groups and individuals involved.
So far as we know, until the final years of the s Soviet intelligence agencies had only a transitory and limited presence in the United States. Little was available, apart from newspaper stories and the records of congressional investigations. Formal FBI reports and statements of findings were used, but not the underlying investigatory files; those would not be made public until the s and the Freedom of Information Act.
Historians who wanted additional primary material had to obtain it themselves. Theodore Draper, in particular, was indefatigable: Draper, however, was exceptional in his success in unearthing primary material.Academic dishonesty is a well-documented problem in higher education. While numerous actions and/or behaviors are attributed to threatening academic integrity, the vernacular term used by both students and faculty is "cheating".
Regulations: Unless a Leave of Absence has been granted, students are expected to register for every academic quarter once their graduate studies begin. This quantitative study identified socio-demographic and situational conditions that affected nursing students' engagement in academic dishonesty, their attitudes regarding various forms of academic dishonesty, and the prevalence of academic dishonesty they witnessed and engaged in.
Additionally, it asked about their explanations of academic dishonesty and enforcement of consequences for cheating. A Pearson’s correlation revealed a statistically significant relationship between teachers’ classroom practices and academic dishonesty and between the use of technology and academic dishonesty.
Abstract. This dissertation examined cheating attitudes and behaviors of undergraduates, especially those enrolled in online courses. While cheating is an established problem within the academy, it is also an issue on the job and has been in the spotlight in recent years, with ethics scandals in corporate America and plagiarism in the media.
Return to Responses, Reflections and Occasional Papers // Return to Historical Writings. The Historiography of Soviet Espionage and American Communism: from Separate to Converging Paths.