Freedom of Information Act FOIA Introduction The Freedom of Information Act FOIA generally provides that any person has a right, enforceable in court, to obtain access to federal agency records, except to the extent that such records or portions of them are protected from public disclosure by one of nine exemptionsor by one of three special law enforcement record exclusions b 7. The principles of government openness and accountability underlying the FOIA are inherent in the democratic ideal:
Roots of the scandal[ edit ] Development of air mail[ edit ] Main article: The operation was put together in ten days by Major Reuben H. Fleetthe executive officer for flying training of the Division of Military Aeronauticsand managed by Captain Benjamin B.
Post Office began in August under Lipsner, who resigned from the Army on July 13 to take the post. Lipsner procured Standard JR-1B biplanes specially modified to carry the mail with twice the range of the military mailplanes, the first civil aircraft built to U.
In the beginning the work was extremely dangerous; of the Air mail act 40 pilots, three died in crashes in and nine more Air mail act It was before an entire year ensued without a fatal crash. Regular transcontinental air mail delivery began in Into encourage commercial aviation, the Kelly Act also known as the Air Mail Act of authorized the Post Office Department to contract with private airlines for feeder routes into the main transcontinental system.
Most were small, under-capitalized companies flying short routes and old equipment. During World War I he had served as a flight instructor, had served on the Chicago Aeronautical Commission, and was a member of the board of governors of the National Aeronautical Association when selected by Hoover.
MacCracken left the Commerce Department in and returned to his private law practice, where he continued to be involved in the growth of commercial aviation by representing many major airlines. Postmaster General Walter Folger Brown sought to improve the efficiency of the air mail carriers in furtherance of a national transportation plan.
Requiring an informed intermediary, Brown asked MacCracken to preside over what was later scandalized as the Spoils Conferences, to work out an agreement between the carriers and the Post office to consolidate air mail routes into transcontinental networks operated by the best-equipped and financially stable companies.
This relationship left both exposed to charges of favoritism. When MacCracken refused later to testify before the Senate, he was found in contempt of Congress. McNary of Oregon and Rep.
Watres of Pennsylvaniaauthorized the postmaster general to enter into longer-term airmail contracts with rates based on space or volume, rather than weight. The Act gave Brown strong authority some argued almost dictatorial powers  over the nationwide air transportation system.
The main provision of the Air Mail Act changed the manner in which payments were calculated. Air mail carriers would be paid for having sufficient cargo capacity on their planes, whether the planes carried mail or flew empty, a disincentive to carry mail since the carrier received a set fee for a plane of a certain size whether or not it carried mail.
The purpose of the provision was to discourage the carrying of bulk junk mail to boost profits, particularly by the smaller and inefficient carriers, and to encourage the carrying of passengers.
Airlines using larger planes designed to carry passengers would increase their revenues by carrying more passengers and less mail. The third and most controversial provision gave Brown authority to "extend or consolidate" routes in effect according to his own judgment.
Ironically Brown was angered by the negotiations, worried that the specter of a potential monopoly would endanger the imminent passage of the Air Mail Act. The merger swiftly created the first transcontinental airline.
Further meetings between the larger carriers, presided over by McCracken, continued into June that often developed into harsh wrangling over route distribution proposals and consequent animosity towards Brown.
After what was described as a " shotgun marriage " between Transcontinental Air Transport and Western Air Express in July to achieve the second of the three companies UATC was the firstcompetitive bids were solicited by the Post Office on August 2,and opened August A surprise competitive bidding struggle ensued between UATC, through a quickly formed skeleton company it called "United Aviation," and the newly merged Transcontinental and Western Air over the central transcontinental route.
He awarded bonuses for carrying more passengers and purchasing multi-engined aircraft equipped with radios and navigation aids. By the end of the airline industry was the one sector of the economy experiencing steady growth and profitability, described by one historian as "Depression-proof.
Airmail itself, despite its image to many Americans as a frivolous luxury for the few remaining affluent,  had doubled following restructuring. Much of this if not all was the result of the postal subsidies, funded by taxpayers. Ludington Airline, established and owned by brothers Townsend and Nicholas Ludingtonbegan offering an hourly daytime passenger shuttle on September 1,just two weeks after Eastern Air Transport EAT began its first passenger operations between New York City and Richmond, Virginia.
However it began operating in the red when the novelty of cheap air travel wore off as the Great Depression deepened and competition with arch-rival EAT intensified.
The official mentioned to Lewis that in the carrier could not get a proposed "express service" air mail contract to extend CAM 25 Miami to Washington via Atlanta to Newark, New Jerseynot even by submitting a low bid of 25 cents a mile.
He brought the story to the attention of William Randolph Hearst and although Hearst would not print it, was given approval to investigate the story full-time.NOTE - The FARSite is the authoritative source for the AFFARS only. The FARSite is only an electronic representation of the FAR and the other supplements.
Conversation With A Shipper At TIACA ACF The old joke is that at an air cargo trade show usually the only shipper that you see out walking near the display stands is .
increase efficiency. Due to the failure of the toxic air pollutant provisions of the Clean Air Act, new, more stringent provisions were adopted requiring regulations for all major sources of varieties of toxic air pollution within 10 years.
Airmails of the United States or U.S. Air Mail was a service class of the United States Post Office Department and its successor United States Postal Service delivering mail flown by aircraft within the United States and its possessions and territories.
Background: The Air Mail Act of (Kelly Act) authorized the postmaster general to contract for domestic airmail service with commercial air carriers.
It also set airmail rates and the level of cash subsidies to be paid to companies that carried the mail.
By transferring airmail operations to private companies, the government effectively would help create the commercial aviation industry. Network caching problems are impacting the delivery of new published and updated products to the e-Publishing website. Users within the Air Force Network are not always viewing the most up to date data, while if a user is on their personal laptop or cell phone (non-Air .