Defining Peace Pacifism is the broad commitment to making peace. The idea is complicated by the fact that peace is a family resemblance term: Peace is easiest to define dialectically as the opposite of war or violence.
Pacifism has thus been described simply as anti-warism or as commitment to nonviolence. One conceptual difficulty here is that when peace is defined negatively, pacifism appears as a reactionary A study of pacifism to war and violence.
Discussions of peace thus often employ negative terms and creative neologisms to express the concept of peace: At any rate, peace scholarship has long emphasized the distinction between negative peace and positive peace: When pacifism is defined as anti-warism, we encounter the difficulty of defining war.
War is usually thought of as violence between states or, more broadly speaking, political communities. If pacifism is defined as a commitment to nonviolence, we encounter the same problem of definition. Pacifists will tend to think that most intentionally caused harms are unjustifiable.
But the ideal of nonviolence might be extended to include the idea of controlling rough and intense emotions. There are a variety of possibilities for thinking about A study of pacifism nature of peace and thus for understanding what pacifism aims at creating.
We might claim that absolute rule and absolute submission produce a sort of peace. But this is peace conjoined with injustice.
So it is clear that the sort of peace that is worth pursuing is peace that is also linked to justice. The idea of justice is at the heart of the just war tradition, which claims that we are entitled to fight back against injustice.
Most pacifists will claim that the peace of slavery is not what they have in mind. Rather, for the majority of pacifists, pacifism is not simply acquiescing passively to evil—pacifism is not passive-ism. Rather, pacifism involves actively but nonviolently resisting evil. Nonetheless, some pacifists, such as Tolstoy, do advocate nonresistance.
Peace as the absence of war may be a mere modus vivendi in which armed opponents refrain from attacking one another out of fear.
This sort of peace is the peace of a truce or stalemate. While it is true that in such conditions, there is no overt damage done, the opponents have not been reconciled and hostile intentions have not been eliminated.
Some may claim that the best we can do to make peace is to reach a state of detente that is made possible by mutual deterrent force.
In this sort of peace, the antagonistic parties are simply no longer willing to fight.
|Varieties of Pacifism||The proposed ideal is that social intercourse should be completely non-violent and peaceful, and conflicts which may arise should be dealt with through arbitration and compromise rather than with recourse to violent means.|
|Pacifism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)||Definition[ edit ] Pacifism covers a spectrum of views, including the belief that international disputes can and should be peacefully resolved, calls for the abolition of the institutions of the military and war, opposition to any organization of society through governmental force anarchist or libertarian pacifismrejection of the use of physical violence to obtain political, economic or social goals, the obliteration of force, and opposition to violence under any circumstance, even defence of self and others. Historians of pacifism Peter Brock and Thomas Paul Socknat define pacifism "in the sense generally accepted in English-speaking areas" as "an unconditional rejection of all forms of warfare".|
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Hostile intentions may persist; but the will to fight can no longer be actualized. And pacifists will argue that the peace of deterrence and detente are not really peace either, because they are the result of an increase in armaments and the threat of escalating violence.
This is a peace that results from a lack of grievances and hostility. Similarly, Michael Doyle has claimed that democracies do not go to war with one another Doyle ; see Gursozlu John Rawls has explained the stability of well-ordered democratic states as follows: More recently, this idea about the stabilizing and peace-making power of democracy has influenced neo-conservative ideas in U.
The idea that peace is founded in a just political order is connected to the ideas of the just war tradition.
Defenders of the just war tradition—from Augustine to Walzer—argue that occasionally it is necessary to make war in order to establish such a tranquil and just social condition.
More recent defenders of the just war idea have argued that interventionist wars should be fought in order to create stable conditions by defending human rights see footnote 1.
Pacifists will disagree with those who claim that wars should be fought in pursuit of the ideal of a just and stable social order. Proponents of humanitarian intervention maintain that war is a suitable means for attaining the goal of respect for human rights and satisfaction of human needs; but pacifists will argue that only nonviolent means are coherent with the these intended ends.
The peace of a just and tranquil order points toward something like a condition of wholeness in which there is solidarity, mutual respect, and satisfaction of needs. In this vision of peace there is genuine community and human flourishing.
One central concern from the standpoint of positive peace is the work of peace education, as well as work on nonviolent conflict resolution and mediation see Fitz-Gibbon Related concerns point toward the importance of justice, with a special focus on restorative justice and community building.
However, recent work Davenport, Melander, and Regan, in the field of peace studies has argued that positive peace is both too broad and too vague to be of use for empirical work in peace studies.The philosophical study of pacifism requires examining a variety of aspects of the broad proposal, as well as an investigation as to its consequences.
Pacifism relates to war as well as to domestic injustices and repressive policies. Pacifism is a commitment to peace and opposition to war. Our ordinary language allows a diverse set of beliefs and commitments to be held together under the .
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Pacifism Is "peace-making" It is not passive, not inactive, not simply about resistance A commitment to peace grounded in justice A refusal to . Start studying Types of Pacifism. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
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